What was happening along the low lying, dry ground alongside the Winterbourne in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age? And what was happening in the wider landscape at the time Avebury henge was being built over 4,500 years ago?
These questions were in mind when we began excavating the deeply buried prehistoric soils. Excavation was in the chequerboard style (as with Between the Monuments and the Foot of Avebury Down excavations) in order to achieve spatial distribution and density patterns (and, as a bonus, it looks lovely).
©National Trust/Briony Clifton
There was a general, low density scatter of material, and worked flint present in all four trenches.
Much of the flint is from the Early or Later Mesolithic (Early Mesolithic flint is rare for this region). From excavation archives carried out in this area in the 1980s, Mesolithic activity on site was not unexpected; what was unexpected was that the presence of Mesolithic flint work was in all the 2018 trenches.
Among the flint flakes there were a few microliths present, which are characteristic of the Mesolithic period. Microliths are tiny shaped flint flakes which make up composite tools. For the flint fanatics among you it’s possible to recognise the difference between Early Mesolithic microliths and Late Mesolithic ones (four Late Mesolithic ‘rod’ form microliths were uncovered).
The discoveries indicate Mesolithic presence in the form of repeated visits and activity, making use of the area by the river that was dry ground. Early and Late Neolithic worked flint was also present on site. It wasn’t as common, but much of it refits and is in situ!
Come back tomorrow to find out about the later archaeology on site…..
We had the most glorious weather excavating at Avebury in the summer with the Living with Monuments Project team (ignoring one day of tremendous downpours). Site Directors, Profs. Josh Pollard (University of Southampton) and Mark Gillings (University of Leicester) led the three-week dig in July/August to the west of Avebury Henge.
Looking south to Silbury Hill (just to the left tucked away behind the trees) ©National Trust/Nicola Snashall
Why dig there?
Over the last decade there have been excavations in and around Avebury which have helped us better understand the landscape in certain areas. Last year we excavated a large flint scatter a mile east of Avebury Henge as part of the Foot of Avebury Down dig (Interim Report). There have also been excavations along the West Kennet Avenue in recent years where the team gathered data of a Neolithic occupation site there (click here for more).
The floodplain of the Winterbourne to the west of Avebury Henge is less well understood. Previous work here uncovered medieval pits and ditches, parts of the post-medieval water meadow system, Neolithic and Mesolithic worked flint, and Neolithic pottery.
Here was an opportunity to better understand the nature of the Mesolithic to Early Bronze Age periods in this area and their extent between the Winterbourne and the henge monument.
Look out for tomorrow’s update where I’ll be talking about the Prehistoric archaeology from the dig…..
It was business as usual today… plus doughnuts were brought to site and there was no rain!
Excavation continued on two of the bigger features – one in Trench 1 and the other in Trench 2. Both of these are probably tree throws, and there are a lot of interesting things coming out of the top of both.
Tree Throw – Trench 1
Tree throw excavation in Trench 1 ©National Trust/Briony Clifton
This feature is being excavated by Jess and Phoebe in quadrants, two of which were dug today. There are only a few flint flakes from the top of this tree throw, but the interesting part is there’s lots of burnt flint which appears in chunks that are very brittle… word is travelling round site that this is an area of Mesolithic activity! We’ve already had evidence of the Mesolithic on site in the form of a blade and a blade core tablet. We’ll let you know if anything else comes to light when the feature is fully excavated.
Tree Throw – Trench 2
Excavating the tree throw in Trench 2 in segments ©National Trust/Briony Clifton
Chris, Jake and India are excavating this feature which looks like a tree throw in plan, and they have discovered that it has been burrowed into by rabbits (so there are a few rabbit bones coming out), but they are getting loads of worked flint and a few bits of Peterborough Ware (Middle Neolithic pottery), along with pig and cattle bones; so this looks to be a tree throw that was utilised by humans in some way, filled in and then later burrowed into.
Flint end scraper and Peterborough ware pottery, beautifully hand-modelled by Chris and Jake ©National Trust/Briony Clifton
It’s our day off tomorrow, but we’ll be back on site on Sunday to continue excavating the features and stripping back Trench 9.